Troubleshooting Webcam Problems

Troubleshooting Webcam Problems

Broadband internet brings people many conveniences, one of which is shortening the distance between people who are far away from each other by using their webcams for video chatting and online meetings.

Computer Hardware Repair and Maintenance

Computer Hardware Repair and Maintenance

What is computer hardware? Hardware components like the monitor, keyboard, CPU (Central Processing Unit), mouse, and other I/O (Input-Output) devices constitute a computer. The working of the monitor, keyboard, mouse, and I/O

Computer Hardware Troubleshooting Tips and Tools

Computer Hardware Troubleshooting Tips and Tools

The computer hardware includes devices, such as the mouse, keyboard, monitor, printer, scanner, etc. All are machines and are bound to face technical issues at some point or the other. However, you

Hardware components of a computer system

Hardware components of a computer system

Due to advancements in Information Technology (IT), there have been various technologies that are being used all over the world. And when it comes to technology, a combination of hardware and software

Instructions to Install a Liquid Cooling System

Instructions to Install a Liquid Cooling System

Liquid cooling systems have been used to cool cars since eons and seemingly, it also happens to be the way to cool your computer. Yes, it is true that computers today are

 

Troubleshooting Webcam Problems

webcamBroadband internet brings people many conveniences, one of which is shortening the distance between people who are far away from each other by using their webcams for video chatting and online meetings. But doubtlessly these camera devices also would expose many problems when using. Here I will talk about some troubleshooting tips on webcam problems.

Common webcam problems contain that PC camera is non-responsive; images are blur or even no images; you might actually get an error message or will not be able to choose the camera as the video source in your program, etc.

However, before fixing your webcam problems, make sure you know well how to use this device. You can refer to the manual and all documentation that came with it. Then we begin to locate the problems.

Broadband internet brings people many conveniences, one of which is shortening the distance between people who are far away from each other by using their webcams for video chatting and online meetings. But doubtlessly these camera devices also would expose many problems when using. Here I will talk about some troubleshooting tips on webcam problems.

Common webcam problems contain that PC camera is non-responsive; images are blur or even no images; you might actually get an error message or will not be able to choose the camera as the video source in your program, etc.

However, before fixing your webcam problems, make sure you know well how to use this device. You can refer to the manual and all documentation that came with it. Then we begin to locate the problems.

Step 1 – Check whether the connection between your webcam and computer is active or not (laptops with a built-in webcam can skip this step). Make sure your USB cable is properly plugged, and also try to connect your camera directly to your PC rather than a USB hub (if you are using).

Step 2 – Turn off your computer, unplug the webcam, boot up your machine and then plug your camera back in. Let the system pick up the webcam, probably reinstall or repair camera driver and then see if that works.

If it fails, go to the Device Manager and check, there are tow possibilities: One, it might be recognized as a camera, but the right camera driver is not installed or missing; a yellow exclamatory mark beside Camera under the list of Sound, video and game controllers will indicate a problem. The second possibility is that this camera is not recognized by your system, and it will be listed under Other Devices in Windows XP with a question mark beside it. In either case you need to update camera driver; since Windows fails to install a right one for your camera, you can download an automatic camera driver manager tool to help you. Personally I use PC Driver Helper, it scans your PC for installed hardware and allows you to install and update the right camera driver and other computer drivers quickly and easily.

Step 3 – If the above tips fail, uninstall the software that came with your camera by using the Add or Remove Programs in the Control Panel, and then restart your PC as well as reinstall the webcam software. This method can fix webcam problems in most cases, but depending on the software sometimes you need to unplug your camera when installing the software.

Step 4 – Most of the webcam programs have options of video source for the webcam feature, if you have multiple devices that qualify for video, you need to choose your camera as the source for the webcam feature in that program.

Step 5 – Make sure your computer has the latest version of Microsoft Direct X, version 9 or newer, since all webcams and other video applications use Direct X for video processing.

To check your Direct X, you can click Start and select Run; type dxdiag in the open box and click OK; choose the System tab and then you can see the version of your Direct X tool at the bottom of the System information section.

Step 6 – If the quality of your webcam’s images are blur, check if it has a focus ring. If it has one, try to get the subjects in frame, in the position they will be when the video is being taken, and adjust the focus ring on the camera lens until the image is sharp and clear.

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Common Misconceptions About The Agile Scrum Software Development Process

When it comes to choosing an approach to create custom software, a technical project manager has a few different methodologies to consider – two of the most common being waterfall and agile. While waterfall is sometimes considered the traditional approach to software development, agile software development has gained ground in recent years, proving to be an effective method.

The scrum methodology describes a unique approach to creating custom software in which product development teams work in incremental iterations to reach common goals. A major principle of the scrum methodology is the ability of a product development team to be highly flexible in accordance to stakeholder requests. Open communication among team members and stakeholders is highly encouraged throughout the project for the sake of producing the highest quality product in the most efficient way.

Agile software development relies heavily on the scum framework to produce the best end-product possible. As with most styles and approaches to project management, the scrum methodology is not immune to criticism.

Four Common Myths about Scrum

For a better understanding of the scrum methodology, follow along for an informed response to some of the common criticisms leveled against the scrum approach to agile software development:

Not Enough Documentation – Some may believe that when using scrum, there is not enough documentation of progress throughout the project. This, however, is not true. Documentation of progress using the product backlog is crucial to the scrum agile software development process. Documentation can also be considered another deliverable within a project’s increments. This allows team members to see what progress has been made, and what needs to be done in future iterations.

Projects Lack Planning – During an agile software development project, it’s sometimes thought that there is not enough advanced planning. This criticism may spring from the fact that the agile software development process is very dynamic, responding quickly to problems as they arise. Project planning, however, is in large part what enables this responsive approach. The scrum approach places high priority on developing the product back log. The agile development team works closely with the project owners and stakeholders to develop a strategic plan of attack on high priority back log items. The team then implements the plan in order to successfully complete the prioritized items during iterations.

Scrum is a Different Version of Waterfall- Scrum and Waterfall are two very different approaches to software engineering. Waterfall is a linear process that revolves around creating and getting approval on project specs prior to development, and presenting deliverables to stakeholders based on specified certain time frames and deadlines. Whereas scrum involves a more dynamic approach to product development where chunks of work are broken up into short periods called “sprints.” Scrum is recognized for rapid delivery of functional products, and the flexibility to change deliverables upon stakeholder request.

Team Members Must Work in One Location – It is oftentimes misunderstood that agile development teams must work under one roof in order to communicate effectively with stakeholders, developers, and others on the team. This is not true. With technological developments, telecommunication has proven to be highly effective in cross team collaboration. Many agile software development teams across the U.S. work very effectively with nearshore team members conveniently located in countries like Costa Rica. Emailing, texting, phone communication, and services like Skype enable agile development teams with offshore members to be just as effective as if they were working under one roof.

The common myths about the scrum framework may sometimes discourage stakeholders from using the approach in custom software development projects.

As the popularity of agile software development continues to grow, it is likely that additional evidence will surface to debunk negative myths about scrum. When it comes to deciding which software development approach to implement, you should definitely consider the scrum agile approach to creating custom software.

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8 Fundamental Stages in the Web App Development Process

To survive the accelerating market competition, web app development is a fundamental tool for every business. Largely, the development process is shaped around a three layered software development model including users, business and data services. This kind of layout is used for separating a web app into services supplier and customer networks.

Here, we will learn about some essential phases to be followed in the web development process.

Brainstorm upon an Agenda: This is the first step, which involves establishing the objective and purpose of developing the particular web application. Basically, defining a roadmap will be followed to map a suitable direction to the project.

Identifying the Target Audience: This phase generally involves defining the intended audience for your web application. This step requires you to prepare a proper analytics report, which includes information like the type of audience, their web access capabilities, their security levels, and the quantitative audience statistics.

Building a Document for Detailed Functional Specifications or Featured Summary: Functional specification document is among the most significant documents in an app development project. This is built to eliminate any kind of confusion in the future. This document lists all the technical specifications and functionalities of the developing web app. Although in case of large projects, it is pretty difficult to detail every user behavior. For such projects, a featured summary document can be prepared and used.

Identify and Analyze any Third Party Vendors: Developing a web app is usually an economic process, especially when outsourced. So here, third party vendors are identified including: web app development companies, payment gateways and merchant accounts, SSL service providers, fulfillment centers, and service providers for server, firewall, networks and load balancer equipment.

Technology Selection and Specifying the Timeframe and App Structure: It is the step where the app development platform, technology, framework and environment are defined. Along with this, the timeline within which the web app development will be achieved is determined.

Layout Designing and Wire Framing: Interface and Layout Design is considered as the most critical stages of any development project. It starts with the creation of a simple UI sketch and a visual instructions. Upon the approval of the interface and the interaction models, the project design implementation follows.

Application Development: This stage is about creating the app architecture and framework, design of its database structure, development of modules, classes and libraries, and implementation of the functionalities mentioned in the specification document.

Testing: It is the final step in the web applications development project. It involves QA testing and bug fixing. Every developing app is required to go through all the suitable testing techniques including load testing, stress testing, performance and usability testing.

An application that is tested well, is ready for its deployment and release, following which proper steps can be followed for its implementation.

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How to Become a Proficient Programmer

Programming is one of the fastest growing professions around the world. With the advancement in technology, the demand of programmers is increasing every day. However, as more numbers of professionals are attracting towards this profession, the competition is also increasing at a fast pace. To become an expert programmer, you need to put a lot of hard work and effort.

Here are some tips that can be the first step in your journey of becoming a professional computer programmer.

Use Inline Comments: You may write large amount of code every day. If you see your code after a few days, it may be possible that you may find difficult to understand what it actually does. Therefore, placing inline comments can be useful to understand the purpose of your code. In addition, incline comments helps others to easily understand what you have written.

Use Descriptive Variable Names: Descriptive variable names make your code more readable and easy to understand. It helps you as well as others to understand the purpose of variables and their expected outcomes.

Dry Run Your Code: You should dry run all conditional and looping statements to ensure that you have applied the correct logic. To dry run, take a few blank sheets and a pencil, pass the value to conditional and looping statements and write their outcomes. It will help you to rectify errors and to apply the correct logic.

Use an IDE: For developing complex programs, use an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) instead of a simple text editor. An IDE generates around more half of the code by itself, therefore, reduces the overall development time. An IDE also helps you to debug, compile, run, and test your program in the simplest possible way. There are different IDEs available these days. Some of them are also free of cost. You can choose an IDE as per your requirements.

Test Your Code: To become a proficient programmer, it is important to test what you have created. You many say that testing is not your responsibility. However, to minimize the chances of errors, you should test the code by own. I recommend you to write code and to create unit tests at the same.

Initially, programming could be a difficult task for anyone. However, it is not as difficult as most of the people think. Programming is an art that can be learnt by putting continuous effort over the time. You just need to stay up and put your effort. With time and experience, you will become a proficient programmer by sure.

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The Best Ways to Learn IOS9 Programming Language

iOS9 is the latest version of Apple’s operating system that was released in June 2015. Apple is one of the three largest operating systems that currently dominate the smartphone market and is continuously growing at an exponential speed.

As a successor to iOS8, the new version came with significant upgrades over its predecessor. This time around, the company focused less on the features and instead on optimizing the technology under the hood and the battery. Some enhancements include a two-finger drag option for selection on the Keyboard, replacing the Newsstand app with a new News App, Notes offering more attachment options, support for transit directions in Maps, multiple multitasking features, a more proactive Siri, 3D Touch integration (Peek and Pop, Quick options), and also a significant improvement on the battery life.

A newer form of App development was also introduced with the introduction of Swift 2, the successor to Swift programming language. Apple’s Swift language is a significant upgrade to using objective-C and also makes iOS programming easier because of its concise syntax and interactive nature. Swift 2 offers an even faster compiler, new fix-it suggestions and mark-down syntax to make the language easier to learn.

In today’s tech driven world, apps have somewhat taken over the world and become an important aspect for everyone today. If you wish to become an iOS programmer and learn how to make iOS apps, there are many different online resources that are available that can help you learn how to build iOS apps in no time. In this article below, I have listed 6 different resources that are not only easy to include in your busy schedule but are also very pocket friendly.

1. Apple Documentation

The best way to learn a new programming language is to look at the official documentation provided by the company. Apple has released extensive documentation dedicated to Swift and all of its features. You don’t even need to create a Developer account to access the documents or even download Xcode from the Mac App.

The documentation contains the history of Swift, how to start learning Swift and even includes sample codes and reference materials to easily help you learn Swift. It is also the best way to remain updated to the changes that are being made to the coding and even new features that are being introduced.

2. AppCoda iOS Programming Course

AppCoda is a website that has dedicated itself to providing free of cost iOS programming tutorials for anyone that wishes to learn. If that is not enough, they have also released a book on iOS Programming that breaks down the concepts for people who prefer to work with textual materials or want extra reading resources. The website is awesomely organized and breaks down the tutorials between Beginner, Intermediate and other headings – allowing you to pick up courses based on your skill level.

3. O’Reilly – iOS 9 Programming Fundamentals with Swift

For someone like me who prefers to find everything they want in one place, this is the perfect resource. Although it might make a little dent in the bank, it is completely worth the price. O’Reilly’s iOS9 Programming Fundamentals with Swift is the perfect book that covers everything you might need to learn not only about Swift but also Xcode, and Cocoa Basics. It is seriously the all in one resource that will constantly be handy when you need it.

4. Swift podcasts

If you are the type of person who prefers to learn while doing, well then here is the knowledge of many different developers at your fingertips. No longer do you need books and step by step tutorials, instead learn everything you need to know by listening to the great minds. There is no bar for experience, as both beginners and advanced users can benefit from this. If this particular podcast doesn’t tickle your fancy, don’t worry there are many different podcasts on Swift and iOS programming languages that are simply a Google search away.

5. HACKING WITH SWIFT – Free Tutorials

Hacking with Swift is a website full of rich tutorials that can easily catch you up with Swift if you have just decided to hitch on to the bandwagon. The website is authored by Paul Hudson, who has created many successful apps for big names such as Fender, Virgin, Jamie Oliver, Odeon, Tesco, etc. The website gives the user the freedom to start wherever they are comfortable, making it easier for even advanced users to get on board. In addition to some theory, the tutorials are broken down into 30 projects in Level 1: 10 app projects, 10 game projects, and 10 technique projects. Hudson is also continuously adding more projects, so you can keep on learning and growing.

6. RAYWENDERLICH – TUTORIALS FOR DEVELOPERS & GAMERS

RAYWENDERLICH is a community of developers that aim to help each other grow by creating tutorials for budding developers. Their objective is to take the most challenging topics and simplify them for everyone to learn. However, this might be a little expensive as a PDF version of their iOS9 tutorials costs around US$54. That being said, the tutorials cover everything you might need to learn iOS9. They have different books depending on if you are a beginner or intermediate.

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Top 3 Useful Features of Export Compliance Software

In this digitalized world, all the business sectors depend on software. The online tools not only make your task easier and smooth, they are also helpful in generating the results that you want in a short period. When online applications come in demand, manual labor is becoming unpopular. For right and cost-effective outcome, most of the business sectors are choosing web-based solutions. Talking about the field of export-import, high standard checking is a must. Proper screening of the business entities is very important when you are exporting goods across the international market. Global trade is a common scenario in these days.

Software vs. Manual Labor:

It is obvious that in the earlier times, manual labor is the backbone of any sort of industry. It was same in the case of export-import. Various intermediate processes like screening, determination of export license and export compliance maintenance was possible manually. But presently, export-import business is expanding globally, more and more number of people is involving themselves in trading business. Thus, it is not possible by manual means to screen in detail everything. This results in the use of export software. By using the right techniques, traders can classify their export goods and mark them as sanctioned or denied.

HERE ARE SOME OF THE FEATURES OF SOFTWARE:

• Generate the Results Fast:

It is one of the best advantages of taking help of online applications. With the help of online applications, you will be able to generate the results as possible. There are various organizations that offer software for exporters who want to maintain compliance with export laws and regulations. Accuracy is another benefit for using online tools. If any person who is a member of trade business want to get right outcome of party screening and export classification, can opt for web-base solutions.

• Provide Bulk or Individual Screening:

It is another benefit of using software. Screening of trade parties and classifying them under sanctioned or denied party is very important. Whether you want to check the export parties individually or in a bulk, you can take help of the online tools. They screen each of the exports parties, vendors, end-users and associates along with their location to ensure that they are abiding the trade rules.

• Customize Export Norms as Per Needs:

It is one of the advantages of using web-based solutions. The exporter can use the software as per the need and according to the planning of export. In most of the cases; screening, license determination, and classification of trade party are possible prior to export.

These are the important three features of online tools. Individuals, who involves in international trade, can use export software for better management of trade compliance. Lack of authenticity and failure to follow export laws is dangerous.

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Tips to Choosing Effective Event Booking Software

Event booking software can save you time and money and can provide you with all the tools you need to ensure your event runs smoothly without issues, enabling you to have a hassle free event and make the most amount of money on the day. There are some very important factors you are going to want to take into consideration when it comes to choosing your event booking software, ensuring you find that one solution that is going to tick all the boxes in terms of what you need, what will help you and what will meet your expenditure budget.

The best place to start you search is online. The internet is brimming with useful information and ideally you want a cloud based system. Cloud systems give you complete access as and when needed, so searching online will give you some indication on what is available and give you the chance to write up a short list that you can start reviewing before you commit and purchase any of the software solutions currently on offer.

Write up a list of the event booking software available and now take the time to learn about each one in detail. While this step may take a little time, you do want to get as much as you can for the price you pay, so in the long run, you want to pay the least amount of money for a solution that is going to help you generate more income and is going to provide you with more benefits and tools. With the internet, you can find it easy to read up on each of the software solutions being offered, this may even help you cross one or two off your list moving forward.

From here you want to review the company that has developed and is supplying the software. Never assume anything is too good to be true until you have done thorough research. Research each company in detail. Ensure that they provide after-sales service and support and that they update and upgrade the software as and when needed so you will always have the best event booking software at your fingertips at all times.

Never rely on the reviews you find on the company website alone. Do your own search and type the company name into your search engine and then go through the results. You want to look for independent review sites and online forums where you can read honest customer feedback. You will be amazed, but this quick and simple step can result in you narrowing down your search considerably and shortening your short list.

With the remaining companies in place, you now want to identify what each of them with their event booking software provides in terms of features. What does the solution include? Do they offer numerous tools for you to take advantage of and to help you make your event a complete success?

From here compare the companies and the software against each other. You want to find the software that is going to provide you with the benefits you need and within your budget. You may find the cheapest one doesn’t quite provide you with everything you need and being realistic about pricing can ensure you get the best software that will tick all the boxes for you moving forward.

Finally, identify how you access the software and look for companies that will provide you with a free trial period. A trial enables you to try the software for yourself and when you feel comfortable, you can buy with complete confidence.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Application Software

Our computers and mobile devices are all loaded with all kinds of software, and each software has a different purpose to fulfill. It is important to first understand the differences between application software and system software. System software is the programming and the coding that is utilized by the various components in the device to communicate with each other. There are millions of commands and instructions that are transferred from one component to another with every passing second, and the system software enables this flow of communication. Additionally, the person using the device does not directly interact with or use the system software, since it is all happening inside the device itself.

On the other hand, application software is that which is used directly by the user for the sole purpose of completing a certain task. This type of software needs to be installed separately on a device, and it regularly has interfaces that enables communication between the machine and the user, hence giving rise to many different advantages and disadvantages. For instance, consider a program that allows you to work with databases. This is a software that is used for a specific application, so it falls under this category. It is universally assumed that they have many advantages, and you will be hard pressed to find disadvantages for the same because ultimately, the purpose of all these devices is to perform many tasks with their help.

Common Types of Application Software

The different types of application software are used by individual users and business enterprises as well, and they have many benefits of doing so. This includes word processing software, database software, multimedia software, editing software, and many other different kinds as well. All these software are either provided individually, or they are packaged together and sold by business to business sellers. When a whole variety of them are integrated collectively and sold to a business, they can take up the form of enterprise software, educational software, simulation software, information worker software, etc.

Advantages

When you begin to compare, you will find that the pros outweigh the cons very easily. With that in mind, here are some of their most popular and widely accepted benefits. Note that in this scenario, we are speaking of application software that is designed for a specific purpose, to be used either by individuals or by businesses.

Their single biggest advantage is that they meet the exact needs of the user. Since they are designed specifically with one purpose in mind, the user knows that he has to use one specific software to accomplish his task.
The threat of viruses invading custom-made applications is very small, since any business that incorporates it can restrict access and can come up with means to protect their network as well.
Licensed application software gets regular updates from the developer for security reasons. Additionally, the developer also regularly sends personnel to correct any problems that may arise from time to time.

Disadvantages

As is the case with all such matters, there are certain disadvantages of such software as well. Though these are not spoken about very often, nor are they highlighted, the fact is that they do exist and affect certain users. But people have accepted these misgivings and still continue to use such software because their utility and importance is much more profound than their weaknesses.

Developing application software designed to meet specific purposes can prove to be quite costly for developers. This can affect their budget and their revenue flow, especially if too much time is spent developing a software that is not generally acceptable.
Some software that are designed specifically for a certain business, may not be compatible with other general software. This is something that can prove to be a major stumbling block for many corporations.
Developing them is something that takes a lot of time, because it needs constant communication between the developer and the customer. This delays the entire production process, which can prove to be harmful in some cases.
Application software that is used commonly by many people, and then shared online, carries a very real threat of infection by a computer virus or other malicious programs.

So, whether you are buying them off the shelf, or whether you are hiring a developer to build specific software for you, all of these points will seem pertinent to you. Many individuals and businesses have regularly found the need and the requirement for such software, and the fact remains that any computing device will be utterly useless without such software running on it.

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The Waterfall Model Explained

There are many approaches to developing software, aptly defined and designed, which are employed during the process. These approaches are also referred to as ‘Software Development Process Models’. Each process model follows a particular life cycle in order to ensure success in the process of software development.

One such approach used in software development is ‘The Waterfall Model’. The waterfall approach was first a process model, to be introduced and followed widely in software engineering to ensure success of the project. In the waterfall approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases. These phases are:

Requirement Specifications Phase
Software Design Phase
Implementation Phase
Testing and Maintenance Phase

The phases are aligned in a cascading manner, so that the second phase is started as and when a defined set of goals are achieved for first phase and it is signed off, and hence the name ‘waterfall’.

Stages of the Waterfall Model Explained

Requirement Analysis and Definition
All possible requirements of the system to be developed are stated in this phase. Requirements are a set of functions and constraints that the end user expects from the system. The requirements are gathered from the end user, and are analyzed for their validity and the possibility of incorporating them. Finally, a requirement specification document is created which serves the purpose of a guideline for the next phase of the model.

System and Software Design
Before starting the actual coding phase, it is highly important to understand the requirements of the end user and also have an idea of how the end product should look like. The requirement specifications from the first phase are studied here, and a system design is prepared. The design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements, and also helps in defining the overall system architecture. The system design specifications serve as an input for the next phase of the model.

Installation and Deployment
The software is now applied by the customer to his/her own system(s). What the customer needs to take care of is his own system complying with the minimum system requirements of the software. He also needs to take care of any system configurations and reconfigurations on his side of the deal. Once the software is properly installed, he will begin communication with the dealers on a need-to-know basis, and help report any bugs that occur.

Implementation and Unit Testing
On receiving system design documents, the work is divided in modules/units and actual coding starts. The system is first elaborated into small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality; this is referred to as unit testing. Unit testing mainly verifies if the modules/units meet their specifications.

Operations & Maintenance
This phase of the model is virtually never-ending. Generally, problems with the system (which are not found during the development cycle) come up after its practical use starts, so the issues related to the system are solved after its deployment. Not all the problems come into picture directly, but they arise from time to time and need to be solved; hence this process is referred to as maintenance, even though its still pretty much in the testing phase.
Advantages

There is clear compartmentalization of work and control. That makes it easier to set a schedule for the tasks to be completed within a specified period.
Only after the work for a particular phase is over, does the other phase start, due to which there is no overlapping of phases, or the product does not have to go through different iterative steps.
This model is much easier to envision. Since the processes are all carried out in a linear trickle-down manner, the cost of resources is reduced to a large extent, which in turn helps in reducing the cost of the project considerably.
Lastly, the documentation and testing happens at the end of each phase, which helps in maintaining the quality of the project.

Disadvantages

Not all requirements are received at once, the requirements from a customer may keep getting added to the list even after the end of the ‘requirement gathering and analysis’ phase. This may negatively affect the system development process.
The problems with one phase are never solved completely during the same phase. In fact, many problems arise after a phase is completed. This results in a badly structured system, as not all the problems are solved immediately.
The project is not always partitioned in a flexible way.
As the requirements of the customer are added to the list, not all the requirements are fulfilled, this results in development of an almost unusable system. These requirements are then met in the newer version of the system, which increases the development cost.

Although there are a few disadvantages of the model, it continues to be the most widely-used approach in the industry. This can be attributed to the fact that the advantages of this model outweigh its disadvantages in most types of projects. And lastly, even if the team does not have a lot of experience, this model still perfectly serves the purpose.

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Computer Hardware Repair and Maintenance

What is computer hardware? Hardware components like the monitor, keyboard, CPU (Central Processing Unit), mouse, and other I/O (Input-Output) devices constitute a computer. The working of the monitor, keyboard, mouse, and I/O devices depends largely upon the CPU. Due to some minor causes, like loose connections or dust saturation, any of them can stop functioning.

Faults occurring in the CPU are most hazardous, as it has a very complicated structure. The CPU is an assembly of the motherboard, hard disk drive (HDD), random access memory (RAM), compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM) drive, and the floppy drive. Unless you are well-acquainted with the CPU hardware, it is extremely difficult to pinpoint exactly where the fault has occurred. If any one of these components fail to perform, there are a few repair tips that can be followed. In order to view the circuitry inside the CPU, its casing has to be removed.

Motherboard
The entire functioning of the computer depends on this component. The processor chipset, that performs all the logical operations of the PC, is embedded in the motherboard. Ribbon cables, power supply, CPU, and RAM are the things to be checked first on the motherboard. Check if any of the ribbon cables or the power supply cord is loose. Check if the RAM chip has been misplaced from its slot. The CPU (chipset embedded in the board) will not show any marks on the outside if it is blown. The only way to check whether the CPU is working or not, is to test it by mounting it on the motherboard of another PC. The motherboard has a real-time clock, ROM BIOS, CMOS RAM, RAM sockets, CPU sockets or slots, cache RAM slots, keyboard controller, interrupts, internal connectors, and external connectors mounted on it. Do not tamper with these components, unless you know each and every one of it well. Do not touch the motherboard without turning off the power.

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
Also known as hard drive, it is the long-term storage device of the system. If the hard drive cannot be detected, check the jumper setting. The jumper setting can change the mode of the hard disk from master to slave or vice-versa. Make sure the Windows version being used for partitioning is consistent. Check that each drive has been assigned a drive-type. Make sure the pin numbers of the plug are attached to the corresponding pin numbers of the socket. Do not force the plug into the socket with extra force, the pins may bend. If the plug is not fitting perfectly in the socket, try inserting it again by flipping it over. Do not attempt to open the hard drive without enough knowledge of its components.

Random Access Memory (RAM)
It is the temporary memory of the PC. The data in the RAM is erased when the computer is shut down. Check if the RAM is misplaced from its slot. While replacing the RAM in its slot, check the small niche at the center of the chip (the niche indicates how the RAM is supposed to be placed in the slot and may not be at the exact mid position of the chip-strip). Do not forget to secure the side clips that hold the chip in place. If you are unable to secure them, it means that the chip is not placed correctly in the slot.

Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) Drive
Data stored on external storage device like compact discs (CD) is read by inserting the CD in the CD drive. If the CD drive is not functioning, check if the CD is scratched. If the CD works fine in another PC, check if the power cable of the former drive is loose. Check if the plug and socket pin numbers match. If the tray of the drive is not opening, right click on CD-ROM icon and select eject option. If the tray does not open, insert a straight thin metal pin into the edge and try to pull it open. Do not apply too much of force while doing so. Avoid connecting the CD-ROM drive on the same controller cable as the primary hard drive, this will slow down its performance.

Floppy Drive
If the floppy disk is not opening, try opening it in the floppy drive of another PC. If the disk does not open, then it is probably corrupt. If the disk is stuck in the drive, hold down the eject button for sometime or right click on floppy drive icon and select eject option. If the disk is still stuck, wiggle it up and down till it can be ejected or use tweezers to pull it out. Do not apply too much of force while doing so.

In order to avoid any kind of faults, following maintenance tips can be followed:

Do not let dust saturate on the motherboard. Clean it with a vacuum cleaner or a hand broom once in 2 to 3 months.
The hard drive mostly does not need any external cleaning, though by performing de-fragmentation and disk clean, it can be prevented from crashing.
In the case of the CD-ROM, do not pull the tray forcibly. Make use of the insert/eject button rather than pulling and pushing the tray.
Clean the tray once in a while. Do not keep any heavy object on the tray. Avoid running scratched or damaged CDs in the CD-ROM.
If the CPU fan is making too much noise, unmount it and oil the bearings.
Do not attempt to start the PC if the fan is not in a working condition.
If the fault persists, contact professional services. Also make a note of what exactly is happening when you start the PC. It makes the diagnosis a lot easier for the professional.

The CPU is the brain of the computer. Proper maintenance of the CPU, as well as all other components, enhances the computer performance.

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